In the United States, the legal status of surrogate mothers and their parental rights can be complex and varies from state to state. As of now, some states fully recognize and enforce surrogacy agreements, some states have restrictions, and some states do not recognize the rights of a surrogate mother. That said, the intended parents’ legal status can also depend on whether they are genetically related to the child.
- Moreover, in states that enforce surrogacy agreements, a pre-birth order can be issued by a court. Besides, this order establishes the intended parents as the legal parents as soon as the child is born, and the surrogate mother has no parental rights.
- Also, in some cases, the surrogate’s name may initially appear on the birth certificate, but it can be replaced with the intended parents’ names after the pre-birth order is issued.
- In states where surrogacy is more restricted or not recognized, the surrogate might initially have parental rights, and the intended parents may need to go through an adoption process to establish legal parentage.
- The legal complexities around surrogacy laws by the state mean that it’s essential to consult with a legal professional who is knowledgeable about surrogacy laws in the relevant states. It’s also important to note that laws and legal interpretations can change, so it’s necessary to have the most current information.
Please note that a gestational surrogate (a woman who carries a child conceived through in vitro fertilization using the egg of another woman) typically does not have parental rights to the child she carries in most states, as long as the proper legal procedures are followed. However, in cases of traditional surrogacy in the USA (where the surrogate’s own egg is used), the legal situation can be more complex.
What is a pre-birth order in US Surrogacy?
A pre-birth order is a legal document issued by a court during a surrogate pregnancy that establishes the intended parents as the legal parents of the baby once it’s born. Also, the order is typically obtained in the second or third trimester of the pregnancy. Additionally, the document’s purpose is to ensure that the legal parentage of the child is clear and that the rights of a surrogate mother don’t apply to the child after its birth.
On the other hand, details and processes related to obtaining a pre-birth order can vary significantly by jurisdiction, as surrogacy law is determined by individual states in the U.S. That said, here are some general features of a pre-birth order:
Declaration of Parentage: The main purpose of a pre-birth order is to establish the intended parents as the legal parents of the child during surrogacy in the USA. Also, this is typically done regardless of the parent’s genetic connection to the child. Moreover, in some cases, one intended parent might be genetically related to the child, and the other might not.
That said, some states allow for both intended parents to be recognized as the legal parents in these situations, while others might require the non-genetically related parent to go through an adoption process.
Removal of Surrogate’s Parental Rights: The pre-birth order generally ensures that the surrogate has no legal rights or responsibilities to the child after birth. So, technically, the rights of a surrogate mother don’t apply once the child even if it has reached adulthood.
Birth Certificate Instructions: The pre-birth order usually includes instructions to the hospital and to state officials on how to fill out the birth certificate. Typically, the birth certificate is supposed to list the intended parents as the child’s parents.
Hospital Procedures: The order may include instructions to the hospital regarding who is allowed to make medical decisions for the newborn and who is allowed to be present during and after the delivery.
While pre-birth orders are commonly granted and typically followed, surrogacy laws by the state may not permit them, and in some cases, their legal status may be uncertain. Therefore, anyone considering surrogacy should consult with a knowledgeable attorney to understand the laws in their specific jurisdiction.
What is a post-birth order in US Surrogacy?
A post-birth order is a legal document issued by a court after a child’s birth via a surrogate mother in the USA. Besides, the primary purpose of this order is to establish the intended parents as the legal parents of the newborn child. Moreover, it’s often used in jurisdictions where pre-birth orders are not allowed or recognized. That said, below are some general features of a post-birth order:
Declaration of Parentage: The post-birth order confirms the intended parents as the legal parents of the child. Depending on the surrogacy laws by state, this can happen whether or not the intended parents have a genetic connection to the child.
Removal of Surrogate’s Parental Rights: In general, the post-birth order will ensure the surrogate has no legal rights or responsibilities to the child after birth.
Amending the Birth Certificate: Unlike the pre-birth order, a post-birth order may necessitate changing the initial birth certificate. In some cases, the surrogate’s name might be on the original birth certificate, and the post-birth order will direct the appropriate state department to issue a new birth certificate listing the intended parents as the child’s legal parents.
Legal Formalities: Post-birth orders may require additional legal steps compared to pre-birth orders. Additionally, this could include obtaining the surrogate’s consent after the birth or even going through an adoption process.
Intended parents must know that the details and processes for obtaining a post-birth order can vary significantly based on the jurisdiction, as surrogacy laws are determined on a state-by-state basis in the United States. Therefore, it’s crucial for anyone considering surrogacy to consult with an attorney who is knowledgeable about the specific surrogacy laws in the relevant state.
In a nutshell, we can say that the parental rights of a surrogate mother would depend on the surrogacy laws of that particular state in the USA. So, before taking a big step in the same regard, intended parents must connect with a reputed surrogacy agency in the USA.
This way, they can have clear expectations regarding their surrogacy journey and may achieve the desired results without breaking any laws.